London, United Kingdom (PRWEB) July 25, 2014
A simple and ingenious design
Not only did the Antikythera Mechanism predict eclipses over many decades, but also a whole range of their characteristics. Dr Tony Freeth is a London-based researcher on the Antikythera Mechanism, who uncovers for the first time the simple and ingenious arithmetic design for the remarkable eclipse prediction scheme on the Antikythera Mechanism.
Recovery by sponge divers
The Antikythera Mechanism is a highly sophisticated geared astronomical calculating machine from ancient Greece, recovered in 1901 by Greek sponge divers from a first century BC wreck just off the tiny Mediterranean island of Antikythera. Eclipse prediction on the Antikythera Mechanism was discovered in 2005 by Dr Tony Freeth, working with the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project and the National Archaeological Museum in Athens. It was published in a key paper in Nature in 2006, which analyzed new scientific investigations of the Antikythera Mechanism. The Antikythera Mechanism is now split into 82 fragments. Each fragment was investigated using two innovative techniques: high-tech surface imaging from Hewlett-Packard (USA) and high resolution 3D X-rays by X-Tek Systems (UK).
Babylonian eclipse prediction
By the 7th century BC, Babylonian astronomers had discovered a remarkable repeating cycle of the Earth-Sun-Moon system, called the Saros Cycle, which is the basis of eclipse prediction on the Antikythera Mechanism. This is a cycle of 223 lunar months—just over 18 years—which predicts the repetition of similar eclipses: a process that can be mechanized. The repetition is so accurate that it lasts for 12 – 15 centuries. Dr Tony Freeth: “This research publication reveals the richness and variety of a key aspect of the Antikythera Mechanism: its ability to predict eclipses and many of their characteristics, such as time-of-day, colour, magnitude, direction of shadow obscuration, angular diameter of the Moon and distance North or South of the lunar node. It may not have been very accurate but its ambition was breathtaking.”
The Eclipse Prediction Scheme on the Antikythera Mechanism
The lower back dial of the Antikythera Mechanism is a four-turn spiral, divided into the 223 lunar months of the Saros cycle. The eclipse predictions are distributed in the appropriate months as “glyphs”, groups of Greek characters and symbols that describe the type of eclipse (lunar or solar) as well as the time-of-day of the eclipse. In addition, each glyph includes an index letter, which refers to inscriptions round the Saros Dial describing characteristics of groups of eclipses. To discover whether there will be an eclipse in a future month, a user turns the Mechanism to that month on the Saros Dial and checks for a glyph. Finding a glyph, the user then looks up its index letter in the eclipse inscriptions to discover the eclipse’s characteristics. The paper includes a new reading of the eclipse inscriptions by a leading expert on ancient Greek inscriptions, Dr Charles Crowther (Oxford University).
Arithmetic models are the basis of eclipse prediction
How was the eclipse prediction scheme devised? This research reveals a simple arithmetical basis for predicting eclipses and their characteristics. This scheme depends critically on the lunar nodes: the points where the inclined orbit of the Moon crosses the plane of the Earth’s orbit round the Sun. A numerical measure of how far the eclipse is North or South of the node is the organizing principle that solves the design of the prediction scheme.
The times of eclipses are also shown in the glyphs. The paper shows that these eclipse times can be closely modeled by another arithmetic scheme, based on a linear “zigzag” system from Babylonian astronomy. This implies that each quarter of the four turns of the Saros Dial represented a Full Moon Cycle—the nearly-14-month cycle of the diameter of the Moon when seen from Earth—which is one of the determinants of the appearance and duration of an eclipse. This is the reason that the Saros Dial was designed with four turns.
Early date for the Antikythera Mechanism
When synchronized with the historical record of eclipses, these two arithmetic models imply that the Saros Dial was designed to start in 205 BC. Surprisingly, this early date had been proposed before by Professor James Evans (University of Puget Sound, USA) and Dr Christián Carman (Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Argentina), based on a different approach (publication forthcoming). It is a much earlier date than previously considered and it brings the Mechanism close to the life of Archimedes (d. 212 BC), who made similar mechanisms, and within the life of Apollonios of Perga (d. c. 190 BC), who initiated epicyclic theories for the variable motions of the Moon and planets, which were built into the Antikythera Mechanism. Previous dates for the Antikythera Mechanism in the range 140 BC – 100 BC were based on stylistic analysis of the inscriptions. The new epigraphic analysis by Dr Charles Crowther (Oxford University) is fully consistent with an earlier date at the end of the 3rd century BC.
The surviving inscriptions surrounding the Saros Dial only describe solar eclipses. Another consequence of the analysis is that the Antikythera Mechanism also included lost lunar eclipse inscriptions. While the prediction of eclipse characteristics was quite good for lunar eclipses, it was not at all accurate for solar eclipses, which seem to have been included for completeness by analogy with lunar eclipses.
A beautiful mathematical design
Dr Tony Freeth sets this new research into context: “The eclipse prediction scheme on the Antikythera Mechanism was extremely ingenious and truly extraordinary. The results in this paper add significantly to previous research that has revealed the beautiful mathematical design of the Antikythera Mechanism.”
Freeth T (2014) Eclipse Prediction on the ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine known as the Antikthera Mechanism. PLOS ONE, http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103275.
The paper includes many images that can be used in press reports, provided the appropriate credit is given. In addition, more images (obligatory credit: Copyright 2013 Tony Freeth) are available on the following link:
1. Exploded computer model of the Antikythera Mechanism.
2. The Saros & Exeligmos Dials of the Antikythera Mechanism, showing glyphs and inscriptions.
3. Computer model of the gearing of the Antikythera Mechanism.
4. Saros & Exeligmos Dials & eclipse inscriptions.
5. X-ray CT of Fragment F, showing a glyph and inscriptions.
6. Reconstruction of Greek sponge diver.
7. Dr Tony Freeth examining the Antikythera Mechanism in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens.
8. Dr Tony Freeth with the Parthenon in the background.
Dr Tony Freeth:
Tony Freeth studied pure mathematics: MA, MMath (Cantab); MSc, PhD (Bristol). He then trained as a film director at the National Film & Television School in the UK. After more than 25 years as a film & TV producer and director, he was introduced to the Antikythera Mechanism in 2000 by Professor Mike Edmunds (Cardiff). Tony Freeth researched, proposed and co-organized new investigations of the Antikythera Mechanism, which were carried out in 2005 by an Anglo-Greek team of scientists in collaboration with the National Archaeological Museum in Athens and two high-tech companies, Hewlett-Packard (USA) and X-Tek Systems (UK). This yielded a rich set of data on the Antikythera Mechanism and led to two papers in the prestigious science journal Nature, Freeth et al., Nature 444 2006, Freeth et al., Nature 454 2008). These included startling revelations about the highly sophisticated functions of the Antikythera Mechanism. Further significant research followed; several popular presentations, such as an article in Scientific American; and major contributions to a number of exhibitions. He produced a TV film in 2012, “The 2000 Year-Old Computer”, which had extensive international broadcast and won many awards. He continues to do research on the Antikythera Mechanism and is currently collaborating on new physical models with University College London as well as preparing a book proposal about the Antikythera Mechanism.
“Thinking About It” is Another Way of Saying I Choose More of the Same
Last week after I spoke to a group of professional woman about three key elements to creating a new, more confident you, one member of the audience said to me, “I really loved your talk; you’ve given me a lot to go home and think about.” While I am grateful she really enjoyed my presentation, her comments spoke volumes to me about one of the biggest pitfalls you can make. One of the worst things you can do after you’ve been emotionally moved by something is to do absolutely nothing. I call it:
The peril of “thinking about it”.
Thinking about it is like a cow chewing her cud – a lot of chewing over and over and over. While it is true that time for reflection is necessary and wise to digest information you receive, reflection is 1) Not confined only to your head and 2) Not the same as ruminating over and over about something but doing nothing.
Walking away from an opportunity to make a difference in your life and others’ lives to retreat for the purpose of mental gymnastics is a disservice – to yourself and to the world at large. Why? Because it perpetuates a status quo. It leads to more of the same.
Have you ever left a training class or motivational talk only to be all charged up about what was shared, inspired to make a change and then poof nothing happens. You go back to your life, retreat into your mind, tell yourself some excuse as to why things can’t change, and then continue having the same experience you had before? And then you wonder why you aren’t seeing the results you desire, why you’re not experiencing what you want, and simply conclude that “that’s just the way things are.
Well, if you don’t DO differently how can anything ever be different?
Have you ever heard yourself saying, “Well I already know that.”? My question to you would be – -and how has this intellectual understanding translated into your experience? Oftentimes the answer I hear is – “Well I know what I need to do I just can’t figure out how to do it.” Have you ever felt that way? And then after a few trips around the track with this thought your frustration level rises and rises and rises because you feel like your life is just one big déjà vu?
This is because intellectual understanding of something is never enough. It is never the complete picture. There is a whole different level, a deeper understanding and knowing that is necessary to enact change. And you absolutely must do differently on the inside and out if you wish to experience a different result.
As Morpheus says in the movie The Matrix “There’s a difference between knowing the path and walking the path.”
To move forward with anything in life – your personal growth, achieving goals, effecting change, you must create a clear channel for wisdom, get clear on where you most want to head, the experience you’d most like to have, and then you must start walking.
Today take a few moments to be truly honest with yourself. Consider one of your most important goals or a change you most want to make.
Then ask yourself “Am I just thinking about it? Where am I stuck? What would it take for me to access a deeper knowing about this and move into action?” Be fully honest and responsible with your answers and allow a clear next step to show itself to you.
Paula Gregorowicz, owner of The Paula G. Company, helps you discover and successfully create the work you are meant to do in the world. Through the power of Intuitive Intelligence(tm) you will learn to make wiser decisions with ease as you break free from the tyranny of your own mind that holds you back from your greatest success and best lives. Download the free report – Your Own Uniqueness: The Path to Purpose, Prosperity, and Playfulness at http://www.intuitiveintelligencecoaching.com.
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Chicago, IL (PRWEB) June 20, 2014
Recipients to be recognized at the 9th International Conference on Climate Change for Speaking Truth to Power, Whistleblowing, and the Defense of Science
Three distinguished global warming skeptics – Patrick Moore, Alan Carlin, and Willie Soon – will receive special recognition at the 9th International Conference on Climate Change July 7–9 at Mandalay Bay in Las Vegas (ICCC9).
A total of nine awards will be handed out during plenary sessions at the conference, the largest gathering of scientists and policy experts who are skeptical of man-caused global warming. The conference is organized by The Heartland Institute and co-sponsored by 31 additional think tanks and other organizations. You can see the list of ICCC9 co-sponsors here. An updated list of award recipients can be found here.
“We’ve hosted eight successful conferences on climate change, and it’s long past time to publicly recognize some of the most important figures in the ongoing fight against climate alarmism,” said Joseph Bast, president of The Heartland Institute. “These are individuals who have put their careers at risk to speak their minds and report what the data actually show, not what computer models and politicians order them to show.”
“Such courage is worthy of praise,” Bast said.
The award winners:
Speaks Truth to Power Award: Patrick Moore, co-founder of Greenpeace
Presented by the EarthFree Institute
Patrick Moore, Ph.D. is an internationally renowned ecologist and environmentalist. Beginning his career as an activist/leader in the Greenpeace movement, he now concentrates on collaborative efforts aimed at finding environmental solutions. He speaks and lectures frequently at universities, community meetings, and conferences.
Through books such as Green Spirit – Trees Are the Answer and Confessions of a Greenpeace Dropout, Dr. Moore is known around the world as an eloquent voice for sensible environmentalism.
Climate Science Whistleblower Award: Alan Carlin, EPA economist (retired)
Presented by the Don’t Tread on My Business Foundation
Alan Carlin, Ph.D., now retired, was a career environmental economist at EPA when the Competitive Enterprise Institute broke the story of his negative report on the agency’s proposal to regulate greenhouse gases in June 2009. Dr. Carlin’s supervisor had ordered him to keep quiet about the report and stop working on the global warming issue.
EPA’s attempt to silence Dr. Carlin became a highly publicized embarrassment to the agency, especially given Administrator Lisa Jackson’s and President Obama’s announced commitment to transparency and scientific integrity. Since 2009, Dr. Carlin has been an active and influential writer and speaker on the climate change issue.
In response to the award, Dr. Carlin expressed his great appreciation and said how important it is to oppose EPA’s new proposed power plant regulations resulting from the 2009 Endangerment Finding since they would have adverse economic and environmental effects and are based on invalid science and an attempt by EPA to rewrite the Clean Air Act itself.
Courage in Defense of Science Award: Willie Soon
Presented by the George C. Marshall Institute
Willie Soon, Ph.D., an astrophysicist and geoscientist, is a leading authority on the relationship between solar phenomena and global climate. His discoveries challenge computer modelers and advocates who consistently underestimate solar influences on cloud formation, ocean currents, and wind that cause climate to change.
Dr. Soon has faced and risen above unethical and often libelous attacks on his research and his character, becoming one of the world’s most respected and influential voices for climate realism.
“Science and its practice are no longer free and willing today but instead are constantly terrorized by research funding gravy trains and group thinking,” Soon said. “This is why science needs defending and it takes courage to cleanse science from those cancerous elements and to bring her forward in its rightful place again. I am humbled and honored by this recognition.”
Register for media credentials here.
The Economist magazine in 2012 called Heartland “the world’s most prominent think tank promoting skepticism about man-made climate change.” Heartland has organized and hosted eight International Conferences on Climate Change since 2008. These events have attracted extensive international attention to the debate taking place in the scientific community over the causes and consequences of climate change.
For more information about The Heartland Institute and the 9th International Conference on Climate Change, contact Director of Communications Jim Lakely at jlakely(at)heartland(dot)org or 312/377-4000.
The Heartland Institute is a 30-year-old national nonprofit organization headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. Its mission is to discover, develop, and promote free-market solutions to social and economic problems. For more information, visit our Web site or call 312/377-4000.
Question by Castiel: Strength or Knowledge? Pick one please.?
Strength or Knowledge?
Answer by Masey Lenvey
Knowledge gives you strength
And vice versa
What do you think? Answer below!
Date night? What’s that? Isn’t that something you used to do, once upon a time, before life got so busy? Since you’ve gotten so good at scheduling and fitting everything into your 24 hours, you can make an appointment with your partner! If there are children in the picture, it might be even longer since you’ve even thought about doing something with just the two of you. You might have forgotten how to date! But if you don’t take time to do it now, when will you? Your spouse will be grateful and you’ll have something to look forward to again! Here are some ideas to remind you how to spend time together:
• Pick nights or weekends you both agree on, and take turns planning outings. (Or, if your partner isn’t into planning, you do the work. Just keep it simple so he doesn’t feel he has to measure up when he does start being in charge of the date plans.)
• Start a book club.with just the two of you as members. Let him know some of your favorite quotes in the latest book you’ve been reading, or share an interesting article you’ve read.
• Share your daydreams about life. Ask yourselves where you would both like to travel? Or what hobbies you have let slide that you want to take up again. “Seeing that light at the end of the tunnel offers hope to you as individuals and to your relationship,” says psychologist Dorothy Cantor.
• Decide on a fun television show you both remember from your teenage years (That Girl, Lost in Space, The Brady Bunch?) Get a season’s worth on DVD, and make a running date to watch each episode.
• Pick up a bucket of chicken and head to a drive-in movie. Or grab your favorite food from a nearby restaurant and bring it home. Spread out a blanket and enjoy in front of the fireplace or large flat screen TV!
• Head to an in-door skating rink and strap on some skates. Have hot chocolate in a thermos waiting in the car for the ride home.
• Gather all the ingredients beforehand that you will need to make the biggest, craziest ice cream sundaes you’ve ever had.
• Stop at a fancy bakery and buy a treat for each other.
• If one or both of you wants to lose a little weight, train for a marathon, or just want to feel better, search out recipes for healthful smoothies and whip up one or two to try out.
• What shouldn’t you do? Pester him about how unromantic he is. It will probably backfire. If you’re feeling under-romanced, set a good example by doing things for him that you wish he would do for you, like buying him flowers, putting notes in his lunch, getting ready on time.
If you don’t make a special effort to do something together each week, or as often as you can, then you might miss out on some of life’s special pleasures. Date nights can cost little or no money, since it’s all about time together, more than anything else. Show him you still care by making time just for him and he’ll see that your appointment book always has an open spot with his name in it.
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by Ewan Cross
The great philosopher Socrates never had the chance to learn Forex trading but he once said “I know very well that I am not wise, even in the smallest degree.” Centuries later, millions of people consider this man to be one of the wisest who ever lived. Much like a beginner in the Forex market, Socrates knew that he didn’t know anything. In fact, he had set out to discover what he really knew and, after years of deep reflection, his final conclusion was that he was only wiser in one simple way:
“…neither of us knows anything that is really worth knowing, but he thinks that he has knowledge when he has not, while I, having no knowledge, do not think that I have.” – Socrates
Much like a seasoned Forex investor who had reflected on the market for years, Socrates knew the dangers of thinking you are wise. He wasn’t claiming that knowledge was impossible. We could all learn things about indicators, trend analysis, fundamentals and the like. In a sense, we could still become “wiser” than others. Still, the most important thing that Socrates would have counseled us on was to be very cautious! He would have told us that specialized knowledge or skill might only make traders think they were wiser than they were. In fact, Socrates was acutely aware that none of us really knows what will happen next, whether it is where the price on a currency will go or where the afterlife is going to take us. We must always be wary of thinking we are wise and getting carried away on greed or emotion. As Socrates also said;
“I seem, at any rate, to be a little wiser than he is on this point: I do not think that I know what I do not know.” – Socrates
An important part of wisdom is appreciating the limits of knowledge. Nothing can teach us this point better than trading currencies on the Forex market. The price of a currency can change for no apparent reason and technical information can often make you feel wiser than you actually are.
Having said this, we can still consider some great trading strategies such as those offered by Mr. Kishore M on the website at http://www.ifxprofits.com/instantprofits.php. Socrates never meant to steer us away from knowledge. He merely wanted us to be more aware that we really don’t know anything for sure. Take a look at a great Forex strategy developed by Mr. Kishore M called “Instant PIP Profit.”
There we will walk through the various indicators and analysis surrounding price fluctuations and take our friend Socrates along with us. We won’t let ourselves get too carried away, as some traders often do. We will remember when we learn Forex trading that, no matter how smart Mr. M can make us, the Forex market is full of dangers and pitfalls that always need to be kept close to our hearts.
Kishore M is an expert Forex Trader who was interviewed by Bloomberg & BBC. He has trained over 100,000 forex students around the world.
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What is psoriasis? Psoriasis is a skin disease that varies in its forms including scalp psoriasis,plaque psoriasis,inverse psoriasis etc. The signs or symptoms include red patches on body which are dry and commonly covered with silvery scales. The skin can also be red,blistering,raised and at times inflammed.
The difficulty with most of skin conditions and particularly psoriasis is the fact that skin become irritatable and pose serious public embarassment as most times it can be hard to hide your skin. And in psoriasis it can cover a significant section and more prominent regions such as scalp.
So coming to the question how to handle psoriasis. Well there are few useful helpful hints and treatments which may help you treat your situation of psoriasis. Because psoriasis is a skin disease make sure that you take proper care of your skin. Look after your skin from infections as well as practise utmost cleanliness. Following that point is to trim your fingernails as while its tough to resist from itching it leads to spreading of infection and more so can hurt your skin. So stay away from doing that.
In Psoriasis there could be certain outbreaks which are a end result of certain things that might cause it on the way to trigger. It can be some kind of stress,alteration in your lifestyle or any such type of factor which prospects to it. So make an effort to notice alterations and there effect.
Effortless over-the-counter home remedies for psoriasis include salicylic acid and tar. You can acquire these two ingredients fairly without difficulty. An additional kind of medicine your doctor may well test on you is methotrexate if your skin signs and symptoms are severe along with wide spread.
U.v light might help at times thus it is advised to get approximately 30-45 minutes exposure to sunlight daily. Be sure that you do not get sun burn.
The foremost important feature that can assist you in any condition or illness is taking correct care of diet. Lecithin is a supplementation that’s been found very much helpful in treating scaly skin. This is available as a liquid or else in the form of yellow granules at your local natural food supply. Among other natural remedies to nurture your skin comprise fish oil also cocunut oil that are easily available.
If you would like to know as which supplements are effective in order to remedy psoriasis. Although if you have a healthy diet it will already be abundant in vitamins and minerals but to be precise as in which nutrients can help. Take a decent multivitamin and mineral supplement. Make sure that the supplement has vitamin A, E and Zinc as these are required for healing. The vitamins and minerals contain the nutrients that are needed for you to restore in a balance that will enable then to be used and absorbed effectively.
These are simply easy tips and home remedies that will help you to treat your condition of psoriasis. Patience is crucial you can not expect outcome right away. Be consistent and you will see results.
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